Clinical results indicate that the Closure procedure can be effective at closing the vein and significantly reducing patient symptoms.
(Note:These results were obtained using VNUS Closure and VNUS ClosurePlus; RF products with expandable extrodes)

At two years following treatment, patients who had undergone the Closure procedure reported superior quality of life compared to vein stripping patients.1

The Closure procedure has proven to be highly effective, with 87% of veins treated remaining closed at 5 years. 2 Results also demonstrate long-term relief of symptoms.2

Patient Symptoms Reported at Follow-up2

Three randomized trials of the Closure procedure versus vein stripping, including the multi-center comparative trial published August 2003 in the Journal of Vascular Surgery, show very similar results.2,3,4 In the most recent trial every statistically significant outcome was in favor of the Closure procedure, resulting in1:

  • Experienced less post-operative pain and bruising
  • Resumed normal activities within one day
  • Returned to work more than a week earlier than vein stripping patients




One week post-treatment

Legs without Varicose Veins at Follow-up
The Closure procedure is shown to be effective as vein stripping in delaying the reappearance of varicose veins.

Treatment 1 Year 2 Years
Vein Stripping7
  1. Lurie F, Creton D, Eklof B, Kabnick LS, Kistner RL, Pichot O, et al. Prospective randomized study of endovenous radiofrequency obliteration (Closure) versus ligation and stripping in a selected patient population (EVOLVES study). J Vasc Surg 2003;38:207-14.
  2. Merchant RF, et al. J Vasc Surg 2005; 42: 502-9
  3. Stötter L. Schaaf I, Fendl R, Bockelbrink A. Randomized Study to Compare the Closure Procedure, Invagination Stripping and Cryo Stripping for Treatment of the Greater Saphenous Vein. Abstract submitted to German Society for Phlebology for presentation Sept. 2003.
  4. Rautio T, Ohinmaa A, Perälä J, Ohtonen P, Heikkinen T, Wiik H, et al. Endovenous obliteration versus conventional stripping operation in the treatment of primary varicose veins: A randomized controlled trial with comparison of costs. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:958-65.
  5. Photos Courtesy of Michael A. Vasquez, MD.
  6. Merchant RF, DePalma RG, Kabnick LS. Endovascular Obliteration of Saphenous Reflux: A Multicenter Study. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:1190-6.
  7. Jones L et al. Neovascularisation is the Principal Cause of Varicose Vein Recurrence: Results of a Randomized Trial Of Stripping The Long Saphenous Vein. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1996;12:442-445